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The pilot study of the SEI was conducted with a large, diverse group of 9th grade students. An initial set of items were drawn from the literature and then refined following focus groups with students; a total of 56 items were originally piloted on the survey. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses identified 35-items that loaded on 6 factors: 3 representing cognitive engagement and 3 representing affective engagement.
|Cognitive Engagement||Affective Engagement|
|Future Goals and Aspirations||Family Support for Learning|
|Control and Relevance of Schoolwork||Peer Support for Learning|
|Extrinsic Motivation||Teacher Student Relationships|
SEI scores were associated, as expected, with indicators of student attendance, behavior and achievement (Appleton et al., 2006).